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Yellow fever

01/18/08

NOTIFICATION as at 18th JANUARY 2008

Hello All,
I know there have been questions recently about the yellow fever situation here in Brazil. There are more and more news about cases of yellow fever and also a lot of rumors, I am sure. The following information if from the CDC website. Please continue to monitor the information on the CDC website and make the appropriate informed decisions.

All the best Diego

Outbreak Notice: Yellow Fever Alert for Brazil
This information is current as of today, January 19, 2008 at 19:43

Released: January 18, 2008

On January 8, 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MOH) announced a yellow fever disease alert for tourists and diplomats residing in Brazil, due to a number of suspected and confirmed human yellow fever cases during December 2007 and January 2008. As of January 16, 2008, 10 confirmed cases of Yellow Fever have been reported, including seven deaths.

The Brazilian MOH alert states that travelers to "areas of risk" for yellow fever should be vaccinated 10 days before going to such areas. In addition to areas previously identified in CDC's guidance to travelers, the Brazilian MOH has identified two additional states with yellow fever risk: the northern part of Espiritu Santo and the western part of Santa Catarina.

Brazil currently requires yellow fever vaccination for persons entering Brazil from countries listed as endemic for yellow fever (see Brazil country-specific requirements). The new yellow fever vaccination recommendation by Brazil for travelers is to protect the travelers' health in response to this recent situation.

Recommendations for Travelers
Travelers are strongly advised to follow the CDC yellow fever vaccination recommendations for Brazil, with the addition of the northern part of Espiritu Santo state and the western part of Santa Catarina state. The Federal District of Brasilia is also an endemic area. The Brazilian MOH has recommended vaccination of travelers >6 months of age. Because of increased risk of severe adverse events following vaccination among infants <9 months of age and among travelers >60 years of age, CDC recommends that parents of infants <9 months and travelers >60 years should discuss with their physicians the risks and benefits of vaccination for travel to Brazil.

BRAZIL COUNTRY SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS

THE CDC website currently recommends (but does not require) yellow fever shots for anyone traveling to the state of Goias.

You can monitor this at :
http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh5-MalariaYellowFeverTable-Brazil.aspx

NOTIFICATION JANUARY 2008

Dear Friends of the Casa,

As some of you already know, there have been confirmed cases of yellow fever in Brazil. The main focus right now is in Brasilia and the State of GOIAS. (That's where Abadiania is for those less familiar with the area.)

The local news are carrying stories about this, and it is likely that international news will also carry some stories. If you are planning to visit the casa, here is some factual information you can use on the Yellow Fever situation..

All the best Diego, Casa Volunteer and Translator

 

You should be aware that the according to several websites, the Yellow fever Vaccine is only effective 10 days after inoculation. So if you want to be fully protected you should get your shot at least ten days before traveling.

Also, it seems some countries are requiring the vaccination. For example, the Australian website www.yellowfever.com.au states that the vaccine is required to travel to the endemic zone. (Which of course includes Brazil.)

Please check the appropriate websites in your own countries to get more information.

 

Center for Disease Control - CDC
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) in the United States is currently recommending (not requiring) everyone who travel to GOIAS to be vaccinated.

You can monitor the status of the CDC's position on this situation at
http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowBookCh5-MalariaYellowFeverTable-Brazil.aspx

 

Vaccine is available in Abadiania

The Abadiania Health Services station or "Posto de Saude" has yellow fever vaccines in stock and they will inoculate anyone who asks for FREE.

They are located in downtown Abadiania near city hall and diagonally across the street from the Soup Kitchen. There are some exceptions. They will not give you the vaccine if you:
- Have Cancer, Hepatitis or any autoimmune deficiency.
- Are pregnant
- Take corticoids. (Cortisone)
- Have had the Y.F. vaccine in the last 10 years.
- Are allergic to eggs.

 

The following quote is from WIKIPEDIA. If you are debating whether you should get vaccinated or not, please read this so you can make an informed decision.

Treatment
There is no true cure for yellow fever, therefore vaccination is important. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive only. Fluid replacement, fighting hypotension and transfusion of blood derivates is generally needed only in severe cases. In cases that result in acute renal failure, dialysis may be necessary. A fever victim needs to get a lot of rest, fresh air, and drink plenty of fluids.

Symptoms
The virus remains silent in the body during an incubation period of three to six days. There are then two disease phases. While some infections have no symptoms the first, acute phase is normally characterized by fever, muscle pain (with prominent backache), headache, shivers, loss of appetite, and nausea or vomiting. The high fever is often paradoxically associated with a slow pulse (known as Faget's sign). After three or four days most patients improve and their symptoms disappear.

Fifteen percent of patients, however, enter a toxic phase within 24 hours. Fever reappears and several body systems are affected. The patient rapidly develops jaundice and complains of abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes, and stomach. Once this happens, blood appears in the vomit and feces. Kidney function deteriorates; this can range from abnormal protein levels in the urine (proteinuria) to complete kidney failure with no urine production (anuria). Half of the patients in the "toxic phase" die within fourteen days. The remainder recover without significant organ damage.

Yellow fever is difficult to recognize, especially during the early stages. It can easily be confused with malaria, typhoid, rickettsial diseases, haemorrhagic viral fevers (e.g. Lassa), arboviral infections (e.g. dengue), leptospirosis, viral hepatitis and poisoning (e.g. carbon tetrachloride). A laboratory analysis is required to confirm a suspect case. Blood tests (serology assays) can detect yellow fever antibodies that are produced in response to the infection. Several other techniques are used to identify the virus itself in blood specimens or liver tissue collected after death. These tests require highly trained laboratory staff using specialized equipment and materials